## Estimating and Costing The correct Prismoidal formula for volume is

D/3 [first area + last area + 2 Ʃ Even area + 4 Ʃ odd areas]
D/6 [first area + last area + 2 ∑ Even area + 4 ∑ odd areas]
D [first area + last area + Ʃ Even area + 2 Ʃ odd areas]
D/3 [first area + last area + 4 Ʃ Even area + 2 Ʃ odd areas]

## Estimating and Costing According to Indian Standards Institute, the actual size of modular bricks is

20 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm
23 cm x 11.5 cm x 7.5 cm
19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm
25 cm x 13 cm x 7.5 cm

L - (2 × 0.4 d)
L - (0.42 d)
L + (2 × 0.42 d)
L + 0.42 d

## Estimating and Costing For the construction of buildings, the subheads of the estimate are

All of these
Brickwork Flooring, Wood work, Steel work
Earthwork, Concrete work, Brick work
Brickwork, Stone work, Roofing

0.02 cum
0.03 cum
0.01 cum
0.04 cum

## Estimating and Costing The area of a sloping surface of a protective embankment of mean heightâ€˜dâ€™, side slopes S: 1 and length â€˜Lâ€™ is

2 L.D âˆš(1 + sÂ²)
d Ã— d Ã— s
L.D âˆš(1 + sÂ²)
âˆš[dÂ² Ã— (ds)Â²]