Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in ME The discharge through a wholly drowned orifice is given by (where H1 = Height of water (on the upstream side) above the top of the orifice, H2 = Height of water (on the downstream side) above the bottom of the orifice, and H = Difference between two water levels on either side of the orifice)

Q = Cd × b (H2 - H1) × √(2gh)
Q = Cd × bH2 × √(2gh)
Q = Cd × bH × √(2gh)
Q = Cd × bH₁ × √(2gh)

(IG/Ax̅) - x̅
(IG/Ax̅) + x̅
(Ax̅/IG) + x̅
(IG/x̅) - Ax̅

Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in ME The force exerted by a jet of water (in a direction normal to flow) impinging on a fixed plate inclined at an angle θ with the jet is

(waV²/g) × sin θ
(waV/g) × sin θ
(waV²/2g) × sin 2θ
(waV/2g) × sin θ

Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in ME Maximum impulse will be developed in hydraulic ram when

Supply pipe is short
Supply pipe is long
Waste valve closes suddenly
Ram chamber is large

Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in ME For starting an axial flow pump, its delivery valve should be

Closed
Depends on starting condition and flow desired
Could be either open or closed
Open