Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in ME
The discharge through a wholly drowned orifice is given by (where H1 = Height of water (on the upstream side) above the top of the orifice, H2 = Height of water (on the downstream side) above the bottom of the orifice, and H = Difference between two water levels on either side of the orifice)

Q = Cd × b (H2 - H1) × √(2gh)
Q = Cd × bH2 × √(2gh)
Q = Cd × bH × √(2gh)
Q = Cd × bH₁ × √(2gh)

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Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in ME
The depth of centre of pressure (h) for a vertically immersed surface from the liquid surface is given by (where IG = Moment of inertia of the immersed surface about horizontal axis through its centre of gravity, A = Area of immersed surface, and x = Depth of centre of gravity of the immersed surface from the liquid surface)

(IG/Ax̅) - x̅
(IG/Ax̅) + x̅
(Ax̅/IG) + x̅
(IG/x̅) - Ax̅

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