Airport Engineering
The depressions and undulations in the pavement, are caused due to

Punching effect
Improper compaction of sub-grade
Impact of heavy wheel loads
All listed here

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Airport Engineering
Wing loading of an aircraft is

Gross total weight of the aircraft/ load of the wings
Gross total weight of the aircraft/total available H.P of engines
Gross total weight of the aircraft/ wing area
Load of the wings

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