Ramp
Impulse
Sinusoidal
Step

## Process Control and Instrumentation Working principle of mercury in glass thermometer is based on the __________ of mercury with increase in temperature.

Volumetric expansion
Differential linear expansion
Increase of thermal conductivity
Increase of pressure

## Process Control and Instrumentation Find the ultimate gain and frequency for a proportional controller in the case of a process having the transfer function Gp(s) = 1/(4s + 1)(2s + 1)(s + 1).

W = 1/√14, Kc = 45/7√14
W = √(7/6), Kc = 46/3
W = 1, Kc = 13
W = √(7/8), Kc = 45/4

## Process Control and Instrumentation Temperature measurement range of iron-constantan thermocouple is 0 to 870°C. It can be used to measure sub zero temperature, because at lower temperature

Embrittlement of iron occurs
Emf produced is very low of the order of microvolt
Rusting of iron takes place
Both B and C Here

## Process Control and Instrumentation A proportional controller with a gain of Kc is used to control a first order process. The offset will increase, if

Kc is increased
Integral control action is introduced
Kc is reduced
Derivative control action is introduced