Operating System (OS)
Semaphores

synchronize critical resources to prevent contention
None of these
are used for memory management
synchronize critical resources to prevent deadlock
are used to do I/O

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Operating System (OS)
The advantage(s) of incorporating the macro processor into pass 1 is(are):

Functions are combined and it is not necessary to create intermediate files as output from the macros processor and input to the assembler.
many functions do not have to be implemented twice.
All of these
None of these
more flexibility is available to the programmer in that he may use all the features of the assembler in conjunction with macros.

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