Electrical Machines
In a dc generator operating on load with its brushes on the geometrical neutral axis (GNA), the magnetic neutral axis (MNA) is shifted in the direction of rotation. Now, if the brushes are given a lead of 90° (electrical), then the MNA will

 shift forward by more than 90°
 coincide with the GNA
 shift forward by 90°
 shift forward by less than 90°

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Electrical Machines
The synchronous reactance( Xs) is the

 combined reactance due to armature reaction and leakage flux
 reactance due to leakage flux
 reactance due to armature reaction of the machine
 reactance either due to armature reaction or leakage flux

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Electrical Machines
In a loaded DC generator, if the brushes are given a shift from the interpolar axis in the direction of rotation, then the commutation will

 improve with fall of terminal voltage.
 deteriorate with fall of terminal voltage.
 deteriorate with rise in terminal voltage.
 improve with rise in terminal voltage.

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