Process Equipment and Plant Design
For a cylinderical internally pressurised vessel, which of the following closure types would withstand highest pressure, if each closure is of the same material and thickness?

Hemispherical
Ellipsoidal (2 : 1)
Conical
Flat plate

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Process Equipment and Plant Design
High pressure fluid in a shell and tube heat exchanger should preferably be routed through the

Shell side for large overall heat transfer co-efficient
Shell side for smaller total pressure drop
Shell side, if the flow is counter-current and tube side if the flow is co-current
Tubes to avoid the expansion of high pressure shell construction

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Process Equipment and Plant Design
Liquid gradient over a tray can be minimised by

Using split flow, radial flow or cascade flow for column diameter large than 4 ft
Providing a higher skirt clearance or a higher weir
Decreasing the number of rows of caps through which the liquid flows or by decreasing the velocity of liquid flow past the caps or by reducing the distance along the tray through which the liquid must
All of these

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