Electrical Machines
A bipolar dc machine with interpoles has a main-pole flux of ф per pole and an interpole flux of Фᵢ per pole. The yoke of the machine is devide into four quadrants by the main-pole axis and The commutation axis. The flux-distribution in the quadrants will be

 ½ ( ф + фᵢ ) in all the four quadrants
 ½ ( ф + фᵢ ) in two diametrically opposite quadrants and ½ ( ф - фᵢ ) in the remaining two Quadrants
 ½ ( ф - фᵢ ) in all the four quadrants
 ½ ( ф + фᵢ ) in two adjacent quadrants and ½ ( ф - фᵢ ) in the remaining two quadrants

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Electrical Machines
The residual magnetism of a self-excited dc generator is lost. To build up its emf again

 field winding must be excited by low voltage dc supply
 the armature connection must be reversed
 the field winding connection must be reversed
 the field winding must be replaced

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