Process Control and Instrumentation
Time constant is the

Time taken by the controlled variable to reach 63.2% of its full change
Same as transportation lag
Time required by the measured variable to reach 63.2% of its ultimate change
Same as dead time

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Process Control and Instrumentation
Suppose that the gain, time constant and dead time of a process with the following transfer function:Gc(s) = 10 exp( - 0.1s)/(0.5s + 1) are known with a possible error of ± 20% of their values. The largest permissible gain Kc of a proportional controller needs to be calculated below taking the values of process gain, time constant and dead time as

12, 0.4, 0.08
12, 0.6, 0.12
8, 0.6, 0.12
8, 0.6, 0.08

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