Recombinant DNA
The piece of equipment, that introduces DNA into cells via DNA-coated microprojectiles is known as

inoculating needle
laser
gene gun
DNA probe

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Recombinant DNA
Vectors are

molecules that protect host cells from invasion by foreign DNA
molecules that degrade nucleic acids
molecules that help in replication
molecules that are able to covalently bond to and carry foreign DNA into cells

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Recombinant DNA
Bacterial cells protect their own DNA from degradation by restriction endonucleases by

deleting all recognition sites from the genome
not producing any restriction endonucleases
methylating the DNA at the sites that the enzyme recognizes
having anti restriction endonucleases

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