Workshop Technology
Shift is a casting defect which

Occurs as sand patches on the upper surface of a casting
Occurs near the ingates as rough lumps on the surface of a casting
Results in a mismatching of the top and bottom parts of a casting
Results in general enlargement of a casting

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Workshop Technology
The diaphragm moulding machine is used to

Produce uniform packing of sand in the mould
Ram the sand harder at the pattern face with decreasing hardness towards the back of the mould
Give uniform sand hardness throughout the mould
Ram the sand harder at the back of the mould and softer on the pattern face

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