Plant Structure
The mitochondria were known in the nineteenth century to be osmotically active on the basis of evidence that

the mitochondrial matrix is hypotonic to the cellular cytoplasm
mitochondria were derived from a symbiotic bacterium
mitochondria are surrounded by a semi permeable membrane
the mitochondrial matrix is hypertonic to the cellular cytoplasm

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Plant Structure
Why do some redox reactions in cells result in the transfer of electrons from a reductant with a higher standard redox potential to an oxidant with a lower standard redox potential?

The rules governing oxidation and reduction apply only in vitro, and not in vivo
Redox potentials are defined under standard conditions, and cellular conditions are typically not standard conditions
None of these
Electrons always go from reductants with high redox potentials to oxidants with low redox potentials

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