Plant Structure
Why do some redox reactions in cells result in the transfer of electrons from a reductant with a higher standard redox potential to an oxidant with a lower standard redox potential?

Electrons always go from reductants with high redox potentials to oxidants with low redox potentials
The rules governing oxidation and reduction apply only in vitro, and not in vivo
None of these
Redox potentials are defined under standard conditions, and cellular conditions are typically not standard conditions

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Plant Structure
Cellular metabolism is an example of

equilibrium metabolism
a series of reactions occurring under standard conditions
steady-state metabolism
a series of reactions that defy the second law of thermodynamics

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