Concrete Technology and Design of Concrete Structures
Minimum pitch of transverse reinforcement in a column is

forty-eight times the diameter of transverse reinforcement
sixteen times the smallest diameter of longitudinal reinforcement bar to be tied
lesser of the above three values
the least lateral dimension of the member

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Concrete Technology and Design of Concrete Structures
The critical section for finding maximum bending moment for footing under masonry wall is located

at the middle of the wall
at the edge of the wall
at a distance equal to effective depth of footing from the edge of the wall
halfway between the middle and edge of the wall

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