Process Control and Instrumentation
A photo electric device in which the resistance of the metal is directly proportional to the light striking on it, is known as photo-conductive cell. Photoelectric transducers are used for the measurement of those parameters, which can be used to produce variation in

Voltage
Current
Flux density
Light intensity

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Process Control and Instrumentation
Routh test

Cannot be used to test the stability of a control system containing transportation lag
Can not determine as to how many roots of the characteristics equation have positive real roots
Criterion is not applicable to systems with polynomial characteristic equation
Criterion provides information about the actual location of roots

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Process Control and Instrumentation
The characteristic equation for the control system with a closed loop transfer function Gā‚/1 + Gā‚‚ is given by 1 + Gā‚‚ = 0. The characteristic equation for the control system

Determines its stability
All of these
Depends only upon the open loop transfer function
Is the same for set point or load changes

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