Electrical Machines
A bipolar dc machine with interpoles has a main-pole flux of ф per pole and an interpole flux of Фᵢ per pole. The yoke of the machine is devide into four quadrants by the main-pole axis and The commutation axis. The flux-distribution in the quadrants will be

 ½ ( ф + фᵢ ) in all the four quadrants
 ½ ( ф + фᵢ ) in two adjacent quadrants and ½ ( ф - фᵢ ) in the remaining two quadrants
 ½ ( ф - фᵢ ) in all the four quadrants
 ½ ( ф + фᵢ ) in two diametrically opposite quadrants and ½ ( ф - фᵢ ) in the remaining two Quadrants

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Electrical Machines
Two dc machines A and B, using the same conductor material, have armature circuit resistances of 0.4 Ω and 1.2 Ω respectively. Of the two machines,

 B is bigger than A for the same current rating
 A is bigger than B for the same voltage rating
 A is bigger than B for the same current rating
 both are of the same size for the same current rating

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