DC Motors
As there is no back e.m.f. at the instant of starting a D.C. motor, in order to prevent a heavy current from flowing though the armature circuit

A resistance is connected parallel to the armature
A resistance is connected in series with armature
Armature is temporarily open circuited
A high value resistor is connected across the field winding

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DC Motors
The speed of a dc motor is

inversely proportional to flux per pole
Directly proportional to flux per pole
None of the listed here
inversely proportional to applied voltage

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