Concrete Technology and Design of Concrete Structures
Stress strain curve of high tensile steel

has a definite yield point
does not show definite yield point but yield point is defined by 0.1% proof stress
does not show definite yield point but yield point is defined by 0.2% proof stress
does not show definite yield point but yield point is defined by 2% proof stress,

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Concrete Technology and Design of Concrete Structures
Minimum pitch of transverse reinforcement in a column is

forty-eight times the diameter of transverse reinforcement
sixteen times the smallest diameter of longitudinal reinforcement bar to be tied
lesser of the above three values
the least lateral dimension of the member

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