Concrete Technology and Design of Concrete Structures
If the depth of neutral axis for a singly reinforced rectangular section is represented by kd in working stress design, then the value of k for balanced section

depends on both crst and acbc
is independant of both ast and acbc where d is the effective depth, ast is per-missible stress in steel in tension and ocbc is permissible stress in concrete in bending compression.
depends on aCbC only
depends on as, only

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Concrete Technology and Design of Concrete Structures
Due to circumferential action of the spiral in a spirally reinforced column

Both the capacity of column and ductility of column increase
Capacity of column is decreased but ductility of column increases
Ductility of column reduces
Capacity of column is decreased

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