Process Control and Instrumentation
The characteristic equation for the control system with a closed loop transfer function G₁/1 + G₂ is given by 1 + G₂ = 0. The characteristic equation for the control system

All of these
Depends only upon the open loop transfer function
Is the same for set point or load changes
Determines its stability

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Process Control and Instrumentation
Temperature control of an exothermic chemical reaction taking place in a CSTR is done with the help of cooling water flowing in a jacket around the reactor. The types of valve and controller action to be recommended are

Air to close valve with the controller direct acting
Air to open valve with the controller indirect acting
Air to close valve with the controller indirect acting
Air to open valve with the controller direct acting

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