In plastic analysis, the shape factor for a circular section, is

The ratio of the maximum deflections of a simply supported beam with a central load W and of a cantilever of same length and with a load W at its free end, is

A simply supported beam A carries a point load at its mid span. Another identical beam B carries the same load but uniformly distributed over the entire span. The ratio of the maximum deflections of the beams A and B, will be

A simply supported beam carries varying load from zero at one end and w at the other end. If the length of the beam is a, the maximum bending moment will be

For calculating the allowable stress of long columns σ0 = σy/n [1 - a (1/r)²]is the empirical formula, known as

The strain energy stored in a spring when subjected to greatest load without being permanently distorted, is called

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