Electrical Machines
In a loaded DC generator, if the brushes are given a shift from the interpolar axis in the direction of rotation, then the commutation will

 deteriorate with fall of terminal voltage.
 deteriorate with rise in terminal voltage.
 improve with fall of terminal voltage.
 improve with rise in terminal voltage.

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Electrical Machines
Flashing the field of DC generator means

  making the magnetic losses forces parallel.
  creating residual magnetism by a DC source.
 increasing flux density by adding extra turns of winding.
  neutralising residual magnetism.

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