Power Systems
An impulse turbine

 always operates submerged.
 makes use of a draft tube.
  operates by initial complete conversion to kinetic energy.
 is most suited for low head and high discharge power plants.

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Power Systems
The incremental fuel costs for two generating units G1 and G2 are given by Ic1 = 25 + 0.2 PG1 and Ic2 = 32 + 0.2 PG2, where PG1 and PG2 are real powers generated by the units. The economic allocation for a total load of 250 MW, neglecting transmission loss, is given by

 PG1 = 100 MW and PG2 = 150 MW
 PG1 = 109.75 MW and PG2 = 140.25 MW
 PG1 = 125 MW and PG2 = 125 MW
 PG1 = 142.5 MW and PG2 = 107.5 MW

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