Chemical Reaction Engineering
A first order gaseous phase reaction is catalysed by a non-porous solid. The kinetic rate constant and the external mass transfer co-efficients are k and kg respectively. The effective rate constant (keff) is given by

1/keff = 1/k + 1/kg
keff = (k+ kg)/2
keff = k + kg
keff = (kkg)1/2

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Chemical Reaction Engineering
Promoter.

All of these
Initiates a chemical reaction and is a catalyst by itself
Increases the number of active centres by increasing the unevenness of catalyst surface and by creating discontinuities in the crystals
Atlers the position of equilibrium in a reversible reaction

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Chemical Reaction Engineering
For a first order isothermal chemical reaction in a porous catalyst, the effectiveness factor is 0.3. The effectiveness factor will increase if the

Catalyst size is increased or the catalyst diffusivity is increased
Catalyst size is reduced or the catalyst diffusivity is increased
Catalyst size is reduced or the catalyst diffusivity is reduced
Catalyst size is increased or the catalyst diffusivity is reduced

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